Underachieving Gifted Students
ERIC EC Digest #E478 1990There is perhaps no situation
more frustrating for parents or teachers than living or working with children
who do not perform as well academically as their potential indicates they can.
These children are labeled as underachievers, yet few people agree on exactly
what this term means. At what point does underachievement end and achievement
begin? Is a gifted student who is failing mathematics while doing superior work
in reading an underachiever? Does underachievement occur suddenly, or is it better
defined as a series of poor performances over an extended time period? Certainly,
the phenomenon of underachievement is as complex and multifaceted as the children
to whom this label has been applied.
Authors: James R. Delisle and Sandra L. Berger
Definition of Underachievement
Early researchers (Raph,
Goldberg, and Passow, 1966) and some recent authors (Davis and Rimm, 1989) have
defined underachievement in terms of a discrepancy between a child's school
performance and some ability index such as an IQ score. These definitions, although
seemingly clear and succinct, provide little insight to parents and teachers
who wish to address this problem with individual students. A better way to define
underachievement is to consider the various components.
and foremost, is a behavior and as such, it can change over time. Often, underachievement
is seen as a problem of attitude or work habits. However, neither habits nor
attitude can be modified as directly as behaviors. Thus, referring to "underachieving
behaviors" pinpoints those aspects of children's lives which they are most
able to alter.
Underachievement is content
and situation specific. Gifted children who do not succeed in school are often
successful in outside activities such as sports, social occasions, and after-school
jobs. Even a child who does poorly in most school subjects may display a talent
or interest in at least one school subject. Thus, labeling a child as an "underachiever"
disregards any positive outcomes or behaviors that child displays. It is better
to label the behaviors than the child (e.g., the child is "underachieving
in math and language arts" rather than an "underachieving student").
Underachievement is in the
eyes of the beholder. For some students (and teachers and parents), as long
as a passing grade is attained, there is no underachievement. "After all,"
this group would say, "A C is an average grade." To others, a grade
of B+ could constitute underachievement if the student in question were expected
to get an A. Recognizing the idiosyncratic nature of what constitutes success
and failure is the first step toward understanding underachieving behaviors
Underachievement is tied
intimately to self-concept development. Children who learn to see themselves
in terms of failure eventually begin to place self-imposed limits of what is
possible. Any academic successes are written off as "flukes," while
low grades serve to reinforce negative self-perceptions. This self-deprecating
attitude often results in comments such as "Why should I even try? I'm
just going to fail anyway," or "Even if I do succeed, people will
say it's because I cheated." The end product is a low self-concept, with
students perceiving themselves as weak in academics. Under this assumption,
their initiative to change or to accept a challenge is limited.
Strategies To Reverse
Patterns of Underachievement
Luckily, it is easier to
reverse patterns of underachieving behavior than it is to define the term underachievement.
Whitmore (1980) describes
three types of strategies that she found effective in working with underachieving
behaviors in students:
- Supportive Strategies.
Classroom techniques and de- signs that allow students to feel they are part
of a "family," versus a "factory," include methods such
as holding class meetings to discuss student concerns; designing curriculum
activities based on the needs and interests of the children; and allowing
students to bypass assignments on subjects in which they have previously shown
- Intrinsic Strategies.
These strategies incorporate the idea that students' self-concepts as learners
are tied closely to their desire to achieve academically (Purkey and Novak,
1984). Thus, a classroom that invites positive attitudes is likely to encourage
achievement. In classrooms of this type, teachers encourage attempts, not
just successes; they value student input in creating classroom rules and responsibilities;
and they allow students to evaluate their own work before receiving a grade
from the teacher.
- Remedial Strategies.
Teachers who are effective in reversing underachieving behaviors recognize
that students are not perfect - that each child has specific strengths and
weaknesses as well as social, emotional and intellectual needs. With remedial
strategies, students are given chances to excel in their areas of strength
and interest while opportunities are provided in specific areas of learning
deficiencies. This remediation is done in a "safe environment in which
mistakes are considered a part of learning for everyone, including the teacher.
The key to eventual success
lies in the willingness of parents and teachers to encourage students whenever
their performance or attitude shifts (even slightly) in a positive direction.
Participation in Gifted
Students who underachieve
in some aspect of school per- formance, but whose talents exceed the bounds
of what is generally covered in the standard curriculum, have a right to an
education that matches their potential. To be sure, a program for gifted students
may need to alter its structure or content to meet these students' specific
learning needs, but this is preferable to denying gifted children access to
educational services that are the most accommodating to their abilities.
Role of the Family
The following are some broad
guidelines - representing many viewpoints - for strategies to prevent or reverse
- Supportive strategies.
Gifted children thrive in a mutually respectful, nonauthoritarian, flexible,
questioning atmosphere. They need reasonable rules and guidelines, strong
support and encouragement, consistently positive feedback, and help to accept
some limitations - their own, as well as those of others. Although these principles
are appropriate for all children, parents of gifted children, believing that
advanced intellectual ability also means advanced social and emotional skills,
may allow their children excessive decision-making power before they have
the wisdom and experience to handle such responsibility (Rimm, 1986).
Gifted youngsters need
adults who are willing to listen to their questions without comment. Some
questions merely preface their own opinions, and quick answers prevent them
from using adults as a sounding board. When problem solving is appropriate,
offer a solution and encourage students to come up with their own answers
and criteria for choosing the best solution. Listen carefully. Show genuine
enthusiasm about students' observations, interests, activities, and goals.
Be sensitive to problems, but avoid transmitting unrealistic or conflicting
expectations and solving problems a student is capable on managing.
Provide students with
a wide variety of opportunities for success, a sense of accomplishment,
and a belief in themselves. Encourage them to volunteer to help others as
an avenue for developing tolerance, empathy, understanding, and acceptance
of human limitations. Above all, guide them toward activities and goals
that reflect their values, interests, and needs, not just yours. Finally,
reserve some time to have fun, to be silly, to share daily activities. Like
all youngsters, gifted children need to feel connected to people who are
consistently supportive (Webb, Meckstroth, & Tolan, 1982).
- Intrinsic strategies.
Whether or not a gifted youngster uses exceptional ability in constructive
ways depends, in part, on self-acceptance and self-concept. According to Halsted
(1988), "an intellectually gifted child will not be happy [and] complete
until he is using intellectual ability at a level approaching full capacity....
It is important that parents and teachers see intellectual development as
a requirement for these children, and not merely as an interest, a flair,
or a phase they will outgrow" (p. 24).
Providing an early and
appropriate educational environment can stimulate an early love for learning.
A young, curious student may easily become "turned off" if the
educational environment is not stimulating; class placement and teaching
approaches are inappropriate; the child experiences ineffective teachers;
or assignments are consistently too difficult or too easy. The gifted youngster's
ability to define and solve problems in many ways (often described as fluency
of innovative ideas or divergent thinking ability) may not be compatible
with traditional gifted education programs or specific classroom requirements,
in part because many gifted students are identified through achievement
test scores (Torrance, 1977). According to Linda Silverman (1989), Director
of the Gifted Child Development Center in Denver, Colorado, a student's
learning style can influence academic achievement. She contends that gifted
underachievers often have advanced visual-spatial ability but underdeveloped
sequencing skills; thus they have difficulty learning such subjects as phonics,
spelling, foreign languages and mathematics facts in the way in which these
subjects are usually taught (Silverman, 1989). Such students can often can
be helped by knowledgeable adults to expand their learning styles, but they
also need an environment that is compatible with their preferred ways of
learning. Older students can participate in pressure-free, noncompetitive
summer activities that provide a wide variety of educational opportunities,
including in-depth exploration, hands-on learning, and mentor relationships
Some students are more
interested in learning than in working for grades. Such students might spend
hours on a project that is unrelated to academic classes and fail to turn
in required work. They should be strongly encouraged to pursue their interests,
particularly since those interests may lead to career decisions and life-long
passions. At the same time, they should be reminded that teachers may be
unsympathetic when required work is incomplete. Early career guidance emphasizing
creative problem solving, decision making, and setting short- and long-term
goals often helps them to complete required assignments, pass high school
courses, and plan for college (Berger, 1989). Providing real-world experiences
in an area of potential career interest may also provide inspiration and
motivation toward academic achievement.
Praise versus encouragement.
Overemphasis on achievement or outcomes rather than a child's efforts, involvement,
and desire to learn about topics of interest is a common parental pitfall.
The line between pressure and encouragement is subtle but important. Pressure
to perform emphasizes outcomes such as winning awards and getting A's, for
which the student is highly praised. Encouragement emphasizes effort, the
process used to achieve, steps taken toward accomplishing a goal, and improvement.
It leaves appraisal and valuation to the youngster. Underachieving gifted
students may be thought of as discouraged individuals who need encouragement
but tend to reject praise as artificial or inauthentic (Kaufmann, 1987).
Listen carefully to yourself. Tell your children when you are proud of their
- Remedial Strategies.
Dinkmeyer and Losoncy (1980) caution parents to avoid discouraging their children
by domination, insensitivity, silence, or intimidation. Discouraging comments,
such as "If you're so gifted, why did you get a D in _____?'' or "I've
given you everything; why are you so _____?'' are never effective. Constant
competition may also lead to underachievement, especially when a child consistently
feels like either a winner or a loser. Avoid comparing children with others.
Show children how to function in competition and how to recover after losses.
time-management classes, or special tutoring may be ineffective if a student
is a long- term underachiever. This approach will work only if the student
is willing and eager, if the teacher is chosen carefully, and the course
is supplemented by additional strategies designed to help the student. On
the other hand, special tutoring may help the concerned student who is experiencing
short-term academic difficulty. In general, special tutoring for a gifted
student is most helpful when the tutor is carefully chosen to match the
interests and learning style of the student. Broad-ranged study-skills courses
or tutors who do not understand the student may do more harm than good.
Some students, particularly
those who are highly capable and participate in a variety of activities, appear
to be high achievers when learning in a highly structured academic environment,
but are at risk of underachieving if they cannot establish priorities, focus
on a selected number of activities, and set long-term goals. On the other hand,
some students appear to be underachievers but are not uncomfortable or discouraged.
They may be quite discontent in middle or secondary school (in part because
of the organization and structure), but happy and successful when learning in
an environment with a different structural organization. They may handle independence
Underachievement is made
up of a complex web of behaviors, but it can be reversed by parents and educators
who consider the many strengths and talents possessed by the students who may
wear this label.
Berger, S. (1989). College
planning for gifted students. Reston, VA: The ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities
and Gifted Education.
Davis, G. A. and Rimm, S.
B. (1989). Education of the gifted and talented (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs,
Dinkmeyer, D. and Losoncy,
L. (1980). The encouragement book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Gardner, H. (1985). Frames
of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, (rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Halsted, J. W. (1988), Guiding
gifted readers - From preschool to high school. Columbus: Ohio Psychology Publishing.
Purkey, W. W. and Novak,
J. A. (1984). Inviting school success (2nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Raph, J. B., Goldberg, M.
L. and Passow, A. H. (1966). Bright underachievers. New York: Teachers College
Rimm, S. (1986). The underachievement
syndrome: Causes and cures. Watertown, WI: Apple Publishing Company.
Silverman, L. (March, 1989).
Spatial learners. Understanding Our Gifted, 1 (4), pp. 1, 7, 8, 16.
Silverman, L. (Fall, 1989).
The visual-spatial learner. Preventing School Failure, 34 (1), 15-20.
Torrance, E. P. (1977).
Encouraging creativity in the classroom. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
Webb, J., Meckstroth, E.,
& Tolan, S. (1982). Guiding the gifted child. Columbus, OH: Ohio Publishing
Whitmore, J. F. (1980).
Giftedness, conflict and underachievement. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Resources for Students
Adderholdt-Elliott, M. (1987).
Perfectionism. What's bad about being too good? Explores the problem of perfectionism,
explains the differences between healthy ambition and unhealthy perfectionism,
and gives strategies for getting out of the perfectionist trap.
Bottner, B. (1986). The
world's greatest expert on absolutely everything...is crying. New York: Dell
Publishers. Deals with how perfectionism affects interpersonal relationships.
Delisle, J., & Galbraith,
J.(1987). The Gifted Kids Survival Guide II. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Helps
students understand the meaning of giftedness, how to take charge of their own
education, how to handle other people's expectations, how to make and keep friends.
This book is a sequel to Galbraith, J. (1983), The Gifted Kids Survival Guide
(for ages 11-18). Free Spirit Publishing Co., 123 N. Third St., Suite 716, Minneapolis,
Dinkmeyer, D. and Losoncy,
L. (1980). The encouragement book. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Provides
a plan, strategies, hints, and tips for helping discouraged students.
Ellis, D. (1994). Becoming
a master student (7th ed.). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. Written primarily for
college students, this book provides dynamic ways of teaching study skills,
time-management, and goal-setting. Students are encouraged to try innovative
approaches to academic and life management skills. Available from Houghton-Mifflin
Co., Wayside Road, Burlington, MA 01803.
Galbraith, J. (1984) The
Gifted Kids Survival Guide, Ages 10 and under. Support and practical suggestions
for gifted youngsters who are struggling with typical problems such as school
work, peer relationships, and community expectations. Free Spirit Publishing
Co., 123 N. Third St., Suite 716, Minneapolis, MN 55401.
Halsted, J. W. (1988), Guiding
gifted readers - From preschool to high school. Columbus: Ohio Psychology Publishing.
A guide to using bibliotherapy and an excellent annotated list of books to use
with gifted students.
Harvey, J. & Katz, C.
(1986). If I'm so successful, why do I feel like a fake? The impostor phenomenon.
New York: Pocket Books.
Heide, F. & Chess, V.
(1985). Tales for the perfect child. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Books.
Presents a funny look at what would happen if children were perfect.
Manes, S. (1987). Be a perfect
person in just three days. New York: Bantam/Skylark Books. A student decides
that he wants to be perfect and finds a book on the topic.
McDermott, G. (1980). Sun
flight. Soquel, CA: Four Winds Press. Shows students how aiming too high with
unrealistic standards can be self-defeating.
McGee-Cooper, A. Time management
for unmanageable people. P.O. Box 64784, Dallas, TX 75206. Provides a "right-brain"
method for work/study skills and time-management. Suggestions include "reward
yourself first and then do your assignments." On being gifted. (1976).
New York: Walker and Co. Written by students (ages 15 to 18) who participated
in the National Student Symposium on the Education of the Gifted and Talented,
this book is an articulate presentation of student concerns such as peer pressure,
teacher expectations, and relationships.
Smith, D. (1978). Dreams
and drummers. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers. The story of a perfectionist
who learns that we cannot always be Number One at everything.
Zadra, D. (1986). Mistakes
are great. Mankato, MN: Creative Education. Provides examples of famous mistakes
and how they can be turned into positive learning experiences.
Prepared by James Delisle, Coordinator of Gifted Education, Kent State University,
Kent, Ohio and author of Gifted Children Speak Out; and Sandra L. Berger,
author of College Planning for Gifted Students.
ERIC Digests are in the
public domain and may be freely reproduced and disseminated, but please acknowledge
your source. This publication was prepared with funding from the U.S. Department
of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, under contract
no. RI93002005. The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect
the positions or policies of OERI or the Department of Education.
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