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Home: Special Education Articles: Deaf and Hard of Hearing Articles



  • Acknowledge All of your Child's Communication
    By Sally Lonner. The child's spontaneous language comes from within, and is self-centered. It is important to acknowledge this communication. Unfortunately what the deaf child often sees is a puzzled look or a frown because he is not understood. This article discusses a system called GLGSP (General Language General Speech Pattern), which gives the child consistent, clear, and immediate feedback on the effectiveness of his communication.
    (Added: Sat Jul 14 2001)
  • Does Your Child Say Be Instead of Me
    By Sally Lonner. The (m) sound, which is almost a natural for hearing babies, often has a (b) substitution in the initial position in deaf speech. You hear bom instead of mom. When trying to show the lips together position you often exaggerate the tension in your lips. (Try it in front of a mirror- say mmmm and see how tense and hard your lips are.) This tension is what a deaf child sees, and tries to copy, because he is so visually attuned.The resulting sound is a (b).
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    Additional Learning Problems

    By B.J. Pollack. Hearing loss has far-reaching, critical effects on childhood development of cognitive (thinking) and linguistic (language) skills. The occurrence of other disabilities in combination with diminished hearing creates "additional learning problems" which significantly add to the complexity of educating the student who is deaf or hard of hearing.
    (Added: Sat Jul 14 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    Auditory-Oral Approach

    By Patrick Stone. The auditory-oral approach is based on the fundamental premise that acquiring competence in spoken language, both receptively and expressively, is a realistic goal for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Further, this ability is best developed in an environment in which spoken communication is used exclusively. This environment includes both the home and the classroom (Adams, Fortier, Schiel, Smith, & Soland, 1990; Stone, 1988).
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:

    By Donald Goldberg. The goal of auditory-verbal practice is for children who are deaf or hard of hearing to grow up in "typical" learning and living environments that enable them to become independent, participating, and contributing citizens in an inclusive mainstream society. The auditory-verbal philosophy supports the basic human right that children with all degrees of hearing loss deserve an opportunity to develop the ability to listen and use verbal communication within their own family and community constellations.
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    Cochlear Implants

    By Joan Laughton. A cochlear implant prosthesis is a device that includes an external package (microphone and speech processor) worn by the user and an internal package (an array of electrodes that is surgically implanted into the cochlea (end organ of hearing) in the inner ear. The internal and external components of the cochlear implant are connected via an electric coupling. Cochlear implant prostheses are designed to create hearing sensation by direct electrical stimulation of auditory neurons (nerves).
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    Cued Speech

    By Barbara Caldwell. Cued Speech is a sound-based hand supplement to speechreading. Eight handshapes representing groups of consonants are placed in four positions around the face that indicated groups of vowel sounds. Combined with the natural lip movements of speech, the cues make spoken language visible.
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    English-Based Sign Systems

    By Gerilee Gustason. Sign language as used by deaf adults may resemble English, or it may be American Sign Language (ASL), which has a grammar, syntax, and idioms distinct from English. ASL is sometimes called a natural language because it evolved through use by people who were deaf. In contrast, English-based sign systems were developed by educators. These systems adopted much of the vocabulary of ASL but added grammatical features of English such as articles (a, an, the), verb endings (-s, -ing, -ed, -en), and other markers of English. English-based sign systems follow English syntax.
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing:
    Total Communication

    By Larry Hawkins and Judy Brawner. Total communication (TC), a term coined by Roy Holcomb in 1967, is the title of a philosophy of communication, not a method (Scouten, 1984). Total communication may involve one or several modes of communication (manual, oral, auditory, and written), depending on the particular needs of the child. The original expectation of TC was for teachers to use the communication method(s) most appropriate for a particular child at a particular stage of development. Therefore, there would be situations when spoken communication might be appropriate, other situations where signing might be appropriate, others that would call for written communication, and still others where simultaneous communication might work best (Solit, Taylor & Bednarczyk, 1992).
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • Evaluating School Programs
    By Paula Rosenthal. When a child is prelingually deafened or hard of hearing (usually prior to the age of 3), many families will seek a special education program to assist the child with his speech and/or language development. Since the average age of diagnosis of hearing loss is 2.5 years to 3.5 years, children often suffer from significant receptive and expressive language delays.
    (Added: Wed Jul 18 2001)
  • Hearing Tests Available
    Hearing Tests Available for Newborn Infants and Young Children by Paula Rosenthal. Modern technology has enabled audiologists to test the hearing of newborn infants and children with great accuracy. Unfortunately, many parents and medical professionals are still unaware of these tests. A hearing problem is usually suspected when the child does not meet appropriate language development milestones. Parents are often told by pediatricians to "wait and see" as there is a wide span of time that is considered normal development. Without early testing, most children with hearing loss are not diagnosed until after its initial onset, usually between the ages of 2 and 3. This late diagnosis results in significant speech, language and cognitive delays.
    (Added: Wed Sep 19 2001)
  • How Does Your Child Develop Language Skills?
    By Sally Lonner. More than 90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents. Since the babies appear to be normal and their developmental milestones are on track, detection of the hearing loss is often delayed. Frequently, it is the mother's "gut feeling" that something is wrong that first indicates hearing loss. Far too often it is not given credence until it is pursued consistently.
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)
  • One in Ten Children Suffer with Fluid in their Ears
    By Anne Colledge. One in ten children suffer with fluid in the ear, one in one thousand children have a profound hearing loss, but the latter gets the lion's share of the attention. Yet in the thirty years I worked as a teacher for hearing impaired children I found that many educational problems for children were caused by mild hearing losses. When I did a speech test on children with these problems they heard only half of the words in the test. They would only hear half that was said to them in conversation, or at school or nursery. If we sent our children to school for half the day we would quickly get into trouble.
    (Added: Tue Sep 25 2001)
  • Resources Available
    This article discusses resources for people who need financial assistance to help pay for needed hearing aids or cochlear implant surgery.
    (Added: Wed Nov 07 2001)
  • What Are Nonsegmental Aspects of Speech
    By Sally Lonner. The nonsegmental aspects of speech are: voice production, duration (long and short), intensity (loud and quiet), and pitch (high and low). Mastery of the nonsegmentals is essential if speech is to be understood by those who are not used to hearing deaf speech.
    (Added: Mon Jul 16 2001)