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Home: Special Education Articles: Learning Disabled Articles



  • Areas of Perception That Affect Learning
    By: Bonnie Terry, M. Ed., Educational Therapist, Learning Disabilities Specialist. There are many components to learning. From the learning styles model designed by Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth Dunn there are five sets of stimuli: environmental, emotional, sociological, physical, and psychological. Within those stimuli there are 21 different elements involved that are either simultaneous or successive in the processing of information. One of the 21 elements addressed by them is within the physical stimulus. It is the perceptual area.
    (Added: Wed Sep 19 2001)
  • Beginning Reading
    By Mary K. Fitzsimmons. How to teach reading has been the subject of much debate over the years. One reason may be because, to the reading public, reading seems to be a fairly easy and natural thing to do. However, this apparent ease masks the very real and complex processes involved in the act of reading.
    (Added: Wed Jul 18 2001)
  • Diagnosis and Management of CAPD - Part 1
    Definition. Gail D. Chermak, Ph.D. Notwithstanding the primacy of auditory processing deficits in central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), it is a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders usually associated with a range of listening and learning deficits (ASHA, 1996; Chermak & Musiek, 1992, 1997). CAPD "refers to a deficit observed in one or more of the central auditory processes responsible for generating the auditory evoked potentials and the following behaviors: sound localization and lateralization; auditory discrimination; auditory pattern recognition; temporal aspects of audition including, temporal resolution, temporal masking, temporal integration, and temporal ordering; auditory performance with competing acoustic signals; and auditory performance with degraded acoustic signals." (Chermak & Musiek, 1997, p. 3).
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Diagnosis and Management of CAPD - Part 2
    Assessment. Gail D. Chermak, Ph.D. Given the heterogeneous nature of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) and the range of listening and learning deficits that often coexist with CAPD, comprehensive evaluation requires a multidisciplinary team approach. CAPD is diagnosed by the audiologist on the basis of an extensive audiologic evaluation. Additional evaluation of language development, speech understanding and learning is necessary, however, to identify associated (co-morbid) conditions, as well as clarify the functional impact of CAPD. Speech-language pathologists, psychologists and educators contribute to this more comprehensive assessment. Speech-language and psychoeducational assessment of children with CAPD is beyond the scope of this article. Rather, a minimum test battery for diagnosing CAPD is outlined below.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Diagnosis and Management of CAPD - Part 3
    Management. Gail D. Chermak, Ph.D. Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) is a sensory processing deficit that commonly impacts listening, spoken language comprehension and learning. Although central auditory processing is dependent on the integrity and function of the central auditory nervous system, non-modality specific factors, including attention, motivation, memory, learning and decision processing can exacerbate or mitigate the impact of CAPD. As noted in Part II of this series, evaluation of language development, speech understanding and learning is necessary to identify associated (co-morbid) conditions, as well as clarify the functional impact of CAPD. Once this multidisciplinary evaluation is completed, comprehensive management can be implemented.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Dyslexia Definition
    Academic Interventions for Children with Dyslexia Who Have Phonological Core Deficits. ERIC Digest #E539 August 1995. Authors Julie A. Frost and Michael J. Emery. Approximately 3% to 6% of all school-aged children are believed to have developmental reading disabilities, or dyslexia. In fact, almost 50% of children receiving special education have learning disabilities, and dyslexia is the most prevalent form. Consequently, dyslexia has been given considerable attention by researchers and extensive literature exists on instruction and remediation methods.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Getting Your Child Tested For Special Education Services
    Author: Carl Bendroff, M.Ed. Parents of special needs students, prepare yourselves for the new school year. If you have questions about whether your child is placed properly, or whether your child is getting all the services needed, then request testing by the school psychologist ASAP . If your child is a hard working student who, despite genuine efforts, is not understanding many of the concepts, is getting poor grades, or appears to be lagging behind his grade level by at least two years, then your child may qualify for adjustments in the educational program. Note: Children who are doing poorly due to poor study habits will not be considered for special education classes.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Homeschooling and the Learning Disabled Child
    Author: Eileen Lee, M.A. C.C.C. The decision to homeschool my daughter was not an easy one. I had professional training in a related field but worried that I did not have the special knowledge required to do a good job. The concerns were real. What do I teach? Where do I get the materials? How fast do I go? How do I know that she has adequately learned the material? What happens if I don't understand what I am supposed to be teaching her? But even with these concerns, I had to take the step. Preparation is everything in the area of homeschooling, right from the start. You, as the parent and the teacher, need to take the process step by step.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Learning Disabilities in Children
    Written by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Facts for Families Sheets. Parents are often worried and disappointed when their child has learning problems. There are many reasons for school failure, but a common one is a specific learning disability. A child with a learning disability is usually bright and initially tries very hard to follow instructions, concentrate and "be good" at home and in school. Yet despite this effort he or she is not mastering school tasks and falls behind. Some learning disabled children also have trouble sitting still or paying attention. Learning disabilities affect as many as 15 percent of otherwise able school children.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Phonological Awareness
    NICHCY News Digest Volume 25, August 1997. Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities. Author: William Ellis. Reading is a complex activity. It sends our brains into a frenzy of electrical impulses that zig and zag through matter in ways we still do not totally understand. It organizes sights and sounds in designs that ultimately connect us to the broad vistas of life's many landscapes. Reading gives us the opportunity to appreciate those landscapes in all their variety. It is remarkable that, whatever approach, method, or ideology is used to teach reading, most students become proficient at it. For many students, successful reading is assimilated into their experience quickly and with seeming smoothness. Fortunate, the students for whom reading comes easily!
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • Prepare Your Child For An Emergency
    Author: Carl Bendroff, M.Ed. Your children need to know basic information should an emergency situation arise. Teach and review when and where it is important to state their full name, address, and phone number. When they go out with you, show them who they must report to in case they get lost or separated. Point out what an employee looks like. Tell them they usually wear a name tag or work behind a cash register. Instruct your children that they should never be taken out of that place whether it is a store, park, or even your place of worship. Another option is to tell your children to stay where they are when they realize they are lost. Tell them that you will find them more quickly if they stay in one spot.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • State of education and special education: China
    An overview from the Reading Education Delegation Oct, 2000. Bonnie Terry, M. Ed., Auburn Educational Therapist and owner of Bonnie Terry Learning Center, was invited to be a member of a Reading Education Delegation that traveled to the Peoples's Republic of China to meet with Chinese educators. The delegation was formed at the request of the Ministry of Education of the Chinese Government. Their goal was to further their knowledge of reading techniques that have the students interacting and thinking more than just learning by rote. Spurred by media exposure and new trade agreement with the West, the Chinese are becoming increasingly aware and interested in the ways of English-speaking, democratic cultures. The Chinese have realized that teaching reading, writing, English communication, and above all, teaching their young people to think creatively is imperative to their economic progress.
    (Added: Wed Sep 19 2001)
  • Teaching Children To Use Learning Strategies
    NICHCY News Digest Volume 25, August 1997. Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities. Author: Neil Sturomski. Learning is the process of acquiring-- and retaining-- knowledge so it may be applied in life situations. Learning is not a passive process. As any teacher can attest, students are not vessels into which new information is poured and then forever remembered. Rather, learning new information and being able to recall and apply it appropriately involves a complex interaction between the learner and the material being learned. Learning is fostered when the learner has opportunities to practice the new information, receive feedback from an "expert," such as a teacher, and apply the knowledge or skill in familiar and unfamiliar situations, with less and less assistance from others.
    (Added: Wed Aug 22 2001)
  • The Words We Speak to Our Children
    By Bonnie Terry, M. Ed. The Words you speak to your children are so important! Are you giving your children the 'can do spirit' or are you giving them excuses? Are your words those of encouragement or of discouragement?
    (Added: Sun Jun 01 2003)
  • Turn Students with LD into Writers
    Bonnie Terry, M. Ed., Educational Therapist and Learning Disabilities Specialist spoke at the CEC/CSF CA State Conference on Turning Students with Learning Disabilities into Writers. The following is a summary of her talk.
    (Added: Wed Sep 19 2001)
  • Ways to Improve Reading Fluency
    By Bonnie Terry, M. Ed., Educational Therapist, Learning Disabilities Specialist. Studies have shown that short sessions are better than long session on fluency training.
    (Added: Sun Jun 01 2003)